Judiciary Tracker

Provided by the Article III Project


We pull together data from multiple public sources to make it easy to access key information about the federal judiciary, judicial vacancies, and pending nominations.


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Pace of confirmations

Composition of the federal judiciary

Vacancies in the federal judiciary

Pending judicial nominations

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Pace of Confirmations

As of today, the 1104th day of Donald J. Trump's presidency, the Senate has confirmed 187 Article III judges nominated by President Trump, and 50 intermediate appellate judges nominated by President Trump. That is the 2nd fastest confirmation pace of all U.S. presidents, and the fastest confirmation pace for federal appellate judges of any U.S. president.

For comparison, here are the numbers of (1) confirmed Article III judges and (2) federal intermediate appellate judges nominated by every U.S. president at the 1104th day of their presidencies:


All Article III

  1. Jimmy Carter: 201
  2. Donald J. Trump: 187
  3. William J. Clinton: 186
  4. George W. Bush: 170
  5. Richard M. Nixon: 165
  6. John F. Kennedy: 132
  7. George H.W. Bush: 130
  8. Barack Obama: 125
  9. Ronald Reagan: 124
  10. Lyndon B. Johnson: 119
  11. Dwight D. Eisenhower: 77
  12. Herbert Hoover: 68
  13. Gerald Ford: 64
  14. William H. Taft: 61
  15. Warren G. Harding: 57
  16. Harry S Truman: 52
  17. Grover Cleveland: 44
  18. Franklin D. Roosevelt: 41
  19. Calvin Coolidge: 39
  20. Theodore Roosevelt: 35
  21. Abraham Lincoln: 33
  22. Woodrow Wilson: 32
  23. William McKinley: 29
  24. Ulysses Grant: 28
  25. George Washington: 28
  26. Benjamin Harrison: 25
  27. Rutherford B. Hayes: 20
  28. Chester A. Arthur: 19
  29. Franklin Pierce: 17
  30. James Buchanan: 12
  31. Andrew Johnson: 11
  32. John Quincy Adams: 10
  33. Thomas Jefferson: 9
  34. James Monroe: 9
  35. James K. Polk: 9
  36. Martin Van Buren: 8
  37. Andrew Jackson: 7
  38. Zachary Taylor: 6
  39. John Tyler: 6
  40. James A. Garfield: 6
  41. Millard Fillmore: 5
  42. John Adams: 4
  43. James Madison: 4

U.S. Courts of Appeals

  1. Donald J. Trump: 50
  2. Jimmy Carter: 46
  3. Richard M. Nixon: 34
  4. George H.W. Bush: 31
  5. William J. Clinton: 30
  6. George W. Bush: 30
  7. Lyndon B. Johnson: 28
  8. Barack Obama: 25
  9. Ronald Reagan: 23
  10. John F. Kennedy: 21
  11. Dwight D. Eisenhower: 17
  12. Herbert Hoover: 16
  13. William H. Taft: 11
  14. Gerald Ford: 11
  15. Franklin D. Roosevelt: 11
  16. Harry S Truman: 10
  17. Grover Cleveland: 9
  18. Calvin Coolidge: 8
  19. Theodore Roosevelt: 7
  20. Woodrow Wilson: 6
  21. William McKinley: 6
  22. Warren G. Harding: 6

Note: there are only 43 presidents listed in the left column because (1) Grover Cleveland was both the 22nd and 24th President, and (2) William Henry Harrison did not appoint any Article III judges. There are only 22 presidents listed in the right column because the modern-day U.S. Courts of Appeals were created by Congress in 1891, so no president before Grover Cleveland made appointments to those courts.



Composition of the Federal Judiciary

  As of Jan. 20, 2017   As of Jan. 29, 2020
Court Seats   D R Vacant Balance   D R Vacant Balance
Supreme Court 9   4 4 1 Tie   4 5 0 R + 1
 
D.C. Circuit 11   7 4 0 D + 3   7 4 0 D + 3
Federal Circuit 12   8 4 0 D + 4   8 4 0 D + 4
First Circuit 6   4 2 0 D + 2   4 2 0 D + 2
Second Circuit 13   7 4 2 D + 3   6 7 0 R + 1
Third Circuit 14   7 5 2 D + 2   6 8 0 R + 2
Fourth Circuit 15   9 6 0 D + 3   8 7 0 D + 1
Fifth Circuit 17   5 10 2 R + 5   5 11 1 R + 6
Sixth Circuit 16   5 10 1 R + 5   5 11 0 R + 6
Seventh Circuit 11   3 6 2 R + 3   2 9 0 R + 7
Eighth Circuit 11   1 9 1 R + 8   1 10 0 R + 9
Ninth Circuit 29   18 7 4 D + 11   16 13 0 D + 3
Tenth Circuit 12   7 5 0 D + 2   7 5 0 D + 2
Eleventh Circuit 12   8 3 1 D + 5   5 7 0 R + 2
 
Ct. Int'l Trade 9   5 2 2 D + 3   4 3 2 D + 1
 
D. Alaska 3   1 1 1 Tie   1 1 1 Tie
M.D. Alabama 3   0 1 2 R + 1   0 3 0 R + 3
N.D. Alabama 8   2 4 2 R + 2   2 6 0 R + 4
S.D. Alabama 3   0 2 1 R + 2   0 3 0 R + 3
E.D. Arkansas 5   3 2 0 D + 1   3 2 0 D + 1
W.D. Arkansas 3   3 0 0 D + 3   3 0 0 D + 3
D. Arizona 13   8 3 2 D + 5   7 4 2 D + 3
C.D. California 28   11 12 5 R + 1   9 10 9 R + 1
E.D. California 6   3 3 0 Tie   3 2 1 D + 1
N.D. California 14   13 1 0 D + 12   13 1 0 D + 12
S.D. California 13   5 7 1 R + 2   4 4 5 Tie
D. Colorado 7   3 3 1 Tie   3 3 1 Tie
D. Connecticut 8   6 1 1 D + 5   5 2 1 D + 3
D. Columbia 15   11 0 4 D + 11   11 4 0 D + 7
D. Delaware 4   3 1 0 D + 2   2 2 0 Tie
M.D. Florida 15   7 7 1 Tie   6 8 1 R + 2
N.D. Florida 4   1 1 2 Tie   1 3 0 R + 2
S.D. Florida 18   8 8 2 Tie   7 10 1 R + 3
M.D. Georgia 4   2 1 1 D + 1   2 2 0 Tie
N.D. Georgia 11   8 2 1 D + 6   6 5 0 D + 1
S.D. Georgia 3   1 2 0 R + 1   0 3 0 R + 3
D. Hawaii 4   2 1 1 D + 1   2 2 0 Tie
N.D. Iowa 2   1 1 0 Tie   1 1 0 Tie
S.D. Iowa 3   2 1 0 D + 1   2 1 0 D + 1
D. Idaho 2   1 0 1 D + 1   1 1 0 Tie
C.D. Illinois 4   4 0 0 D + 4   4 0 0 D + 4
N.D. Illinois 22   15 6 1 D + 9   13 6 3 D + 7
S.D. Illinois 4   4 0 0 D + 4   2 0 2 D + 2
N.D. Indiana 5   1 3 1 R + 2   1 4 0 R + 3
S.D. Indiana 5   3 1 1 D + 2   3 2 0 D + 1
D. Kansas 6   3 2 1 D + 1   2 4 0 R + 2
E.D. Kentucky 6   0 5 1 R + 5   0 6 0 R + 6
W.D. Kentucky 5   3 0 2 D + 3   2 3 0 R + 1
E.D. Louisiana 12   6 4 2 D + 2   6 6 0 Tie
M.D. Louisiana 3   3 0 0 D + 3   3 0 0 D + 3
W.D. Louisiana 7   1 4 2 R + 3   1 5 1 R + 4
D. Massachusetts 13   9 3 1 D + 6   8 3 2 D + 5
D. Maryland 10   8 1 1 D + 7   8 2 0 D + 6
D. Maine 3   2 1 0 D + 1   2 1 0 D + 1
E.D. Michigan 15   11 3 1 D + 8   11 4 0 D + 7
W.D. Michigan 4   0 4 0 R + 4   0 3 1 R + 3
D. Minnesota 7   3 2 2 D + 1   3 3 1 Tie
E.D. Missouri 9   4 3 2 D + 1   5 4 0 D + 1
W.D. Missouri 7   6 1 0 D + 5   6 1 0 D + 5
N.D. Mississippi 3   1 2 0 R + 1   1 2 0 R + 1
S.D. Mississippi 6   1 5 0 R + 4   1 3 2 R + 2
D. Montana 3   3 0 0 D + 3   3 0 0 D + 3
E.D. North Carolina 4   0 3 1 R + 3   0 4 0 R + 4
M.D. North Carolina 4   2 2 0 Tie   2 2 0 Tie
W.D. North Carolina 5   1 4 0 R + 3   1 4 0 R + 3
D. North Dakota 2   0 1 1 R + 1   0 2 0 R + 2
D. Nebraska 3   2 1 0 D + 1   2 1 0 D + 1
D. New Hampshire 3   1 2 0 R + 1   1 2 0 R + 1
D. New Jersey 17   7 8 2 R + 1   7 4 6 D + 3
D. New Mexico 7   2 5 0 R + 3   2 3 2 R + 1
D. Nevada 7   5 1 1 D + 4   5 0 2 D + 5
E.D. New York 15   6 6 3 Tie   6 7 2 R + 1
N.D. New York 5   3 1 1 D + 2   3 1 1 D + 2
S.D. New York 28   21 6 1 D + 15   19 5 4 D + 14
W.D. New York 4   3 0 1 D + 3   3 1 0 D + 2
N.D. Ohio 11   6 4 1 D + 2   6 3 2 D + 3
S.D. Ohio 8   4 3 1 D + 1   3 4 1 R + 1
E.D. Oklahoma 2   0 1 1 R + 1   0 1 1 R + 1
N.D. Oklahoma 4   1 2 1 R + 1   1 2 1 R + 1
W.D. Oklahoma 7   1 3 3 R + 2   0 6 1 R + 6
D. Oregon 6   5 1 0 D + 4   4 2 0 D + 2
E.D. Pennsylvania 22   9 11 2 R + 2   9 12 1 R + 3
M.D. Pennsylvania 6   4 2 0 D + 2   3 3 0 Tie
W.D. Pennsylvania 10   2 4 4 R + 2   2 6 2 R + 4
D. Puerto Rico 7   3 3 1 Tie   2 4 1 R + 2
D. Rhode Island 3   1 1 1 Tie   1 2 0 R + 1
D. South Carolina 10   5 3 2 D + 2   5 4 1 D + 1
D. South Dakota 3   3 0 0 D + 3   3 0 0 D + 3
E.D. Tennessee 5   2 3 0 R + 1   2 3 0 R + 1
M.D. Tennessee 4   3 0 1 D + 3   2 2 0 Tie
W.D. Tennessee 5   2 2 1 Tie   2 3 0 R + 1
E.D. Texas 8   3 2 3 D + 1   3 5 0 R + 2
N.D. Texas 12   2 6 4 R + 4   2 10 0 R + 8
S.D. Texas 19   8 9 2 R + 1   8 10 1 R + 2
W.D. Texas 13   4 7 2 R + 3   4 9 0 R + 5
D. Utah 5   3 1 1 D + 2   3 2 0 D + 1
E.D. Virginia 11   6 5 0 D + 1   5 5 1 Tie
W.D. Virginia 4   3 1 0 D + 2   3 0 1 D + 3
D. Vermont 2   2 0 0 D + 2   2 0 0 D + 2
E.D. Washington 4   4 0 0 D + 4   4 0 0 D + 4
W.D. Washington 7   0 4 3 R + 4   0 2 5 R + 2
E.D. Wisconsin 5   2 2 1 Tie   2 1 2 D + 1
W.D. Wisconsin 2   2 0 0 D + 2   2 0 0 D + 2
N.D. West Virginia 3   1 2 0 R + 1   1 2 0 R + 1
S.D. West Virginia 5   3 2 0 D + 1   3 2 0 D + 1
D. Wyoming 3   2 1 0 D + 1   2 1 0 D + 1


Vacancies in the Federal Judiciary

The highlight color of the state column indicates whether that state has two Republican senators (red), two Democratic senators (blue), or one Republican senator and one Democratic senator (purple). (Angus King of Maine and Bernie Sanders of Vermont, who were elected as independents, are counted as Democrats because they caucus with Senate Democrats.) Puerto Rico and the District of Columbia have no senators, and the Court of International Trade, which is located in New York, is not subject to the "blue slip" procedure by which home-state senators can exercise limited veto power over judicial nominees.

Note: This tracker counts vacant Article III seats . There are 673 district judgeships, but 678 district court seats. The discrepancy is attributable to multiple seats held "concurrently" by a single judge:

As of today, there are 75 vacancies on the Article III courts, and 15 nominations pending to fill those vacancies.

Of the remaining 60 vacancies that are awaiting a nominee,

9 (15%) are in red states,

42 (70%) are in blue states,

8 (13%) are in purple states, and

1 (2%) are in states (or for courts) that have no senators.



Vacancies by court:


Court Vacancies Nominees Awaiting nominee
Supreme Court 0 0 0
Courts of Appeals 1 0 1
District Courts 72 14 58
Court of International Trade 2 1 1
Totals 75 15 60


All vacancies:


Court State Vacated By Vacated On Vacator Appointed By Nominee
Fifth Circuit MS Jolly, E. Grady 10/3/17 Ronald Reagan  
Ct Int'l Trade IT Gordon, Leo Maury 3/22/19 George W. Bush  
Ct Int'l Trade IT Ridgway, Delissa Anne 1/31/19 William J. Clinton Stephen A. Vaden
D. Alaska AK Beistline, Ralph R. 12/31/15 George W. Bush Joshua M. Kindred
D. Arizona AZ Collins, Raner Christercunean 3/4/19 William J. Clinton John Charles Hinderaker
D. Arizona AZ Jorgenson, Cindy K. 4/6/18 George W. Bush Scott H. Rash
C.D. California CA Snyder, Christina A. 11/23/16 William J. Clinton  
C.D. California CA O'Connell, Beverly Reid 10/8/17 Barack Obama  
C.D. California CA Morrow, Margaret M. 1/6/16 William J. Clinton  
C.D. California CA Collins, Audrey B. 8/1/14 William J. Clinton Stanley Blumenfeld
C.D. California CA Pregerson, Dean D. 1/28/16 William J. Clinton  
C.D. California CA Real, Manuel Lawrence 6/26/19 Lyndon B. Johnson  
C.D. California CA Guilford, Andrew J. 7/5/19 George W. Bush  
C.D. California CA Otero, S. James 12/30/18 George W. Bush Fernando L. Aenlle-Rocha
C.D. California CA King, George H. 1/6/17 William J. Clinton Mark C. Scarsi
E.D. California CA England, Morrison C., Jr. 12/17/19 George W. Bush  
S.D. California CA Huff, Marilyn L. 9/30/16 George H.W. Bush  
S.D. California CA Anello, Michael M. 10/31/18 George W. Bush  
S.D. California CA Moskowitz, Barry Ted 1/23/19 William J. Clinton  
S.D. California CA Houston, John A. 2/6/18 George W. Bush  
S.D. California CA Benitez, Roger T. 12/31/17 George W. Bush  
D. Colorado CO Krieger, Marcia S. 3/3/19 George W. Bush  
D. Connecticut CT Thompson, Alvin W. 8/31/18 William J. Clinton Barbara Bailey Jongbloed
W.D. Florida FL Kovachevich, Elizabeth Anne 12/14/18 Ronald Reagan  
S.D. Florida FL Marra, Kenneth A. 8/1/17 George W. Bush  
N.D. Illinois IL Castillo, RubĂ©n 9/27/19 William J. Clinton  
N.D. Illinois IL Der-Yeghiayan, Samuel 2/17/18 George W. Bush John Fitzgerald Kness
N.D. Illinois IL Kapala, Frederick J. 5/10/19 George W. Bush  
S.D. Illinois IL Herndon, David R. 1/7/19 William J. Clinton  
S.D. Illinois IL Reagan, Michael Joseph 3/31/19 William J. Clinton  
W.D. Louisiana LA Drell, Dee D. 11/30/17 George W. Bush David Cleveland Joseph
D. Massachusetts MA Woodlock, Douglas Preston 6/1/15 Ronald Reagan  
D. Massachusetts MA O'Toole, George A., Jr. 1/1/18 William J. Clinton  
W.D. Michigan MI Bell, Robert Holmes 1/31/17 Ronald Reagan  
D. Minnesota MN Ericksen, Joan N. 10/15/19 George W. Bush  
S.D. Mississippi MS Starrett, Keith 4/30/19 George W. Bush  
S.D. Mississippi MS Guirola, Louis, Jr. 3/23/18 George W. Bush Cory T. Wilson
D. New Jersey NJ Martini, William J. 2/10/15 George W. Bush  
D. New Jersey NJ Linares, Jose L. 5/16/19 George W. Bush  
D. New Jersey NJ Sheridan, Peter G. 6/14/18 George W. Bush  
D. New Jersey NJ Hochberg, Faith S. 3/6/15 William J. Clinton  
D. New Jersey NJ Kugler, Robert B. 11/2/18 George W. Bush  
D. New Jersey NJ Simandle, Jerome B. 7/19/19 George H.W. Bush  
D. New Mexico NM Herrera, Judith C. 7/1/19 George W. Bush  
D. New Mexico NM Brack, Robert C. 7/25/18 George W. Bush  
D. Nevada NV Jones, Robert Clive 2/1/16 George W. Bush  
D. Nevada NV Mahan, James C. 6/29/18 George W. Bush  
E.D. New York NY Gleeson, John 3/9/16 William J. Clinton Diane Gujarati
E.D. New York NY Bianco, Joseph Frank 5/17/19 George W. Bush  
N.D. New York NY Sharpe, Gary L. 1/1/16 George W. Bush  
S.D. New York NY Forrest, Katherine Bolan 9/11/18 Barack Obama  
S.D. New York NY Sullivan, Richard Joseph 10/25/18 George W. Bush  
S.D. New York NY Castel, P. Kevin 8/5/17 George W. Bush Philip M. Halpern
S.D. New York NY Pauley, William H. III 3/1/18 William J. Clinton  
N.D. Ohio OH Zouhary, Jack 7/1/19 George W. Bush  
N.D. Ohio OH Boyko, Christopher A. 1/6/20 George W. Bush  
S.D. Ohio OH Barrett, Michael Ryan 2/15/19 George W. Bush  
E.D. Oklahoma OK Payne, James H. 8/1/17 George W. Bush  
N.D. Oklahoma OK Payne, James H. 8/1/17 George W. Bush  
W.D. Oklahoma OK Payne, James H. 8/1/17 George W. Bush  
E.D. Pennsylvania PA Stengel, Lawrence F. 8/31/18 George W. Bush  
W.D. Pennsylvania PA Phipps, Peter Joseph 7/22/19 Donald J. Trump  
W.D. Pennsylvania PA Fischer, Nora Barry 6/13/19 George W. Bush William Scott Hardy
D. Puerto Rico PR Garcia-Gregory, Jay A. 9/30/18 William J. Clinton Sylvia Carreno-Coll
D. South Carolina SC Wooten, Terry L. 2/28/19 George W. Bush  
S.D. Texas TX Lake, Simeon Timothy III 7/5/19 Ronald Reagan  
E.D. Virginia VA Smith, Rebecca Beach 8/1/19 George H.W. Bush  
W.D. Virginia VA Conrad, Glen Edward 12/11/17 George W. Bush  
W.D. Washington WA Pechman, Marsha J. 2/6/16 William J. Clinton  
W.D. Washington WA Robart, James L. 6/28/16 George W. Bush  
W.D. Washington WA Settle, Benjamin Hale 1/1/20 George W. Bush  
W.D. Washington WA Lasnik, Robert S. 1/27/16 William J. Clinton  
W.D. Washington WA Leighton, Ronald B. 2/28/19 George W. Bush  
E.D. Wisconsin WI Randa, Rudolph Thomas 9/5/16 George H.W. Bush  
E.D. Wisconsin WI Griesbach, William C. 12/31/19 George W. Bush  


Pending Judicial Nominations

As of today, there are 18 Article III nominations pending in the U.S. Senate.


A brief primer on Senate procedure: The first step when a nomination is received in the Senate is to refer it to the Senate Judiciary Committee, where a hearing will be held regarding the nomination. Usually about four weeks after the hearing, the Judiciary Committee "reports" the nomination to the floor of the Senate, where it is placed on the Executive Calendar. In modern practice, because filibusters of judicial nominees have become routine, the next step is for the Majority Leader to file a cloture petition. If the Senate successfully invokes cloture, which requires a simple majority, then debate is limited to two hours for district court nominees, or 30 hours for court of appeals and Supreme Court nominees. (Note: these are "floor hours," so only hours that the Senate is actually in session count.) Finally, when cloture takes effect, the Senate can proceed to a confirmation vote, which also requires a simple majority.

There is technically one more step before a confirmed nominee becomes a judge: the President must sign and deliver the nominee's judicial commission. Because this step often takes several days, there may be a lag between when Senate data reflects a nominee's confirmation and when the Federal Judicial Center and the Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts reflects that a vacancy has been filled.

Note: The data underlying this table is only updated once per day. For up-to-the-minute information, consult the Senate Republican Cloakroom.

Nom. # Nomination Date Nominee Court Vacancy Created By Status Status Date
PN1383 1/9/20 Mark C. Scarsi C.D. California George H. King, retired Referred to Committee 1/9/20
PN1381 1/9/20 Stanley Blumenfeld C.D. California Audrey B. Collins, retired Referred to Committee 1/9/20
PN1380 1/9/20 Fernando L. Aenlle-Rocha C.D. California S. James Otero, retired Referred to Committee 1/9/20
PN1349 1/6/20 Cory T. Wilson S.D. Mississippi Louis Guirola, Jr., retired Hearings held 1/8/20
PN1347 1/6/20 David Cleveland Joseph W.D. Louisiana Dee D. Drell, retired Hearings held 1/8/20
PN1346 1/6/20 John F. Heil III Northern, Eastern and Western Districts of Oklahoma James H. Payne, retired Hearings held 1/8/20
PN1345 1/6/20 William Scott Hardy W.D. Pennsylvania Nora Barry Fischer, retired Hearings held 1/8/20
PN1314 12/2/19 John Charles Hinderaker D. Arizona Raner Christercunean Collins, retired Hearings held 12/4/19
PN775 5/21/19 Diane Gujarati E.D. New York John Gleeson, resigned Placed on Executive Calendar 6/20/19
PN894 6/24/19 John Fitzgerald Kness N.D. f Illinois Samuel Der-Yeghiayan, retired Placed on Executive Calendar 10/17/19
PN1168 10/15/19 Sylvia Carreno-Coll D. Puerto Rico Jay A. Garcia-Gregory, retired Placed on Executive Calendar 11/7/19
PN229 1/23/19 Philip M. Halpern S.D. New York P. Kevin Castel, retired Placed on Executive Calendar 11/21/19
PN1170 10/15/19 Barbara Bailey Jongbloed D. Connecticut Alvin W. Thompson, retired Placed on Executive Calendar 11/21/19
PN1325 1/3/20 Andrew Lynn Brasher Eleventh Circuit Edward E. Carnes, retiring Reported by Senator Graham, Committee on the Judiciary, without printed report. 1/16/20
PN1326 1/3/20 Joshua M. Kindred D. Alaska Ralph R. Beistline, retired Reported by Senator Graham, Committee on the Judiciary, without printed report. 1/16/20
PN1174 10/15/19 Scott H. Rash D. Arizona Cindy K. Jorgenson, retired Reported by Senator Graham, Committee on the Judiciary, without printed report. 1/16/20
PN1327 1/3/20 Matthew Thomas Schelp E.D. Missouri Stephen N. Limbaugh, Jr., retiring Reported by Senator Graham, Committee on the Judiciary, without printed report. 1/16/20
PN1328 1/3/20 Stephen A. Vaden Ct. Int'l Trade Delissa A. Ridgway, retired Reported by Senator Graham, Committee on the Judiciary, without printed report. 1/16/20


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Last updated Wednesday, January 29, 2020 at 12:15 PM Eastern Time . Updated at least twice daily, at 12:15 AM and 12:15 PM Eastern Time, using data from the U.S. Senate , the Federal Judicial Center , and the ProPublica Congress API .

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